US military bases, facilites and activities overseas fall into three general categories:
2. Lesser or technical facilities, again with a permanent US military presence, which may be largely civilian contractor personnel (Attachment B).
3. Access rights for US forces to use host country facilities for visits, exercises or training, without a significant permanent US military presence (Attachment C).
Most of these arrangements were established through securing prior approval from the host countries concerned, and negotiating formal agreements with them. In the NATO area, Japan and Korea, host nations generally made state-owned land and structures available without cost. Following Congressional approval, new facilities were then constructed, either by the U.S. at its own expense, or through multilateral infrastructure funding in NATO countries. As a matter of international law, title to those improvements vests in the host nation, which grants use rights to the U.S.
With respect to larger bases or installations, no rent is paid as a matter of principle, and the following considerations apply:
(1) Japan, Korea and Germany absorb a significant proportion of the local support costs of U.S. forces. Other wealthy Allies also make a burdensharing contribution, but to a lesser extent.
(2) U.S. security and economic assistance programs for such countries as Greece, Turkey and Egypt reflect in part their provision of basing or access rights.
The U.S. does pay rent for certain lesser facilities and access rights in Antigua, the Bahamas, Bahrain, Oman and Seychelles.
Attachments D and E respectively list those countries with formal U.S. defense commitments, and those having defense relations with the U.S., but not a formal defense commitment.
COUNTRIES AND AREAS WITH US MILITARY BASES OR INSTALLATIONS
Europe (10) East Asia and Pacific (3)
Belgium, Australia, Germany, Japan, Greece, Korea, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal (Azores), Spain, Turkey,United Kingdom
Western Hemisphere (4) Indian Ocean (1)
Canada, Diego Garcia, Cuba, (United Kingdom) Greenland, Panama
COUNTRIES AND AREAS WITH LESSER OR TECHNICAL US MILITARY FACILITIES
Western Hemisphere (2) East Asia and Pacific (2)
Antigua and Barbuda, Marshall Islands, Bahamas, New Zealand
Middle East/Indian Ocean (1) South Atlantic (1)
Bahrain Ascension Island (United Kingdom)
COUNTRIES GRANTING THE US ACCESS RIGHTS FOR USE OF THEIR FACILITIES
Europe (2) East Asia (5)
Denmark, Brunei, Norway, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand
North Africa, Middle East
and Southwest Asia (9) Other Africa (5)
Egypt, Djibouti, Israel, Liberia*, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Senegal, Morocco, Somalia, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates
Western Hemisphere (2)
Antigua and Barbuda, Honduras
* Exercise of U.S. access rights is currently in abeyance.
COUNTRIES WITH FORMAL U.S. DEFENSE COMMITMENTS
(By treaty or otherwise)
NATO (15) Rio Pact (22)
Belgium, Argentina,Canada, Bahamas, Czech Republic, Bolivia, Denmark, Brazil, France, Chile, Germany, Colombia, Greece Costa Rica, Hungary, Cuba*, Iceland, Dominican Republic, Italy, Ecuador, Luxembourg, El Salvador, Netherlands, Guatemala, Norway, Haiti, Poland, Honduras, Portugal, Mexico, Spain, Nicaragua, Turkey, Panama, United Kingdom, Paraguay, Peru
Asia/Pacific Bilaterals (4)
Trinidad & Tobago, Japan, Uruguay, Korea, Venezuela, Philippines, Thailand
ANZUS (2) Agreements of Cooperation (2)
Australia, Liberia***, New Zealand**, Pakistan****
Freely Associated States (3)
Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Palau
* Cuba has been excluded from participation in the Inter American System, including the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance.
** The US has suspended its security obligation to New Zealand under the ANZUS Treaty of 1951.
*** By 1959 executive agreement only.
**** By 1959 executive agreement pursuant to 1957 joint Congressional resolution.
COUNTRIES HAVING DEFENSE RELATIONS WITH THE U.S. THROUGH MILITARY COOPERATION, EXCHANGES OR VISITS, BUT NOT A FORMAL DEFENSE COMMITMENT
Partners for Peace (26) North Africa/Middle East (11)
Albania, Bahrain, Austria, Egypt, Armenia, Israel, Azerbaijan, Jordan, Belarus, Kuwait, Bulgaria, Morocco, Estonia, Oman, Finland, Qatar, Georgia, Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan,Tunisia, Kyrgyzstan, United Arab Emirates, Latvia, Lithuania
Other, Africa (5)
Macedonia (FYROM), Moldova, Dijbouti, Romania, Eritrea, Russia, Kenya, Slovakia, Senegal, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan
Organization of Eastern Caribbean States*, Jamaica
Brunei, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mongolia, Singapore, Taiwan**
* Comprises Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines.
** No formal diplomatic relations. A foreign mlitary sales relationship is provided by the Taiwan Relations Act, 1979.