COUNTRIES WITH UNITED STATES BASES
OR FACILITIES, ACCESS RIGHTS, DEFENSE COMMITMENTS OR DEFENSE
US military bases, facilites and activities overseas fall into
three general categories:
1. Larger bases or installations with a permanent US military
presence, usually comprising combat-capable forces (Attachment A).
2. Lesser or technical facilities, again with a permanent US
military presence, which may be largely civilian contractor
personnel (Attachment B).
3. Access rights for US forces to use host country facilities
for visits, exercises or training, without a significant permanent
US military presence (Attachment C).
Most of these arrangements were established through securing
prior approval from the host countries concerned, and negotiating
formal agreements with them. In the NATO area, Japan and Korea,
host nations generally made state-owned land and structures
available without cost. Following Congressional approval, new
facilities were then constructed, either by the U.S. at its own
expense, or through multilateral infrastructure funding in NATO
countries. As a matter of international law, title to those
improvements vests in the host nation, which grants use rights to
With respect to larger bases or installations, no rent is paid
as a matter of principle, and the following considerations apply:
(1) Japan, Korea and Germany absorb a significant proportion of
the local support costs of U.S. forces. Other wealthy Allies also
make a burdensharing contribution, but to a lesser extent.
(2) U.S. security and economic assistance programs for such
countries as Greece, Turkey and Egypt reflect in part their
provision of basing or access rights.
The U.S. does pay rent for certain lesser facilities and access
rights in Antigua, the Bahamas, Bahrain, Oman and Seychelles.
Attachments D and E respectively list those countries with
formal U.S. defense commitments, and those having defense
relations with the U.S., but not a formal defense commitment.
AREAS WITH US MILITARY
Europe (10) East Asia and Pacific (3)
Belgium, Australia, Germany, Japan, Greece, Korea, Iceland,
Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal (Azores), Spain, Turkey,United Kingdom
Western Hemisphere (4) Indian Ocean
Canada, Diego Garcia, Cuba, (United Kingdom) Greenland, Panama
AREAS WITH LESSER
OR TECHNICAL US
Western Hemisphere (2) East Asia and
Antigua and Barbuda, Marshall Islands, Bahamas, New Zealand
Middle East/Indian Ocean (1) South Atlantic
Bahrain Ascension Island (United Kingdom)
GRANTING THE US ACCESS
RIGHTS FOR USE
OF THEIR FACILITIES
Europe (2) East Asia (5)
Denmark, Brunei, Norway, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore,
North Africa, Middle East
and Southwest Asia (9) Other Africa (5)
Egypt, Djibouti, Israel, Liberia*, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait,
Senegal, Morocco, Somalia, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab
Western Hemisphere (2)
Antigua and Barbuda, Honduras
* Exercise of U.S. access rights is currently in abeyance.
FORMAL U.S. DEFENSE COMMITMENTS
(By treaty or
NATO (15) Rio Pact (22)
Belgium, Argentina,Canada, Bahamas, Czech Republic, Bolivia,
Denmark, Brazil, France, Chile, Germany, Colombia, Greece Costa
Rica, Hungary, Cuba*, Iceland, Dominican Republic, Italy, Ecuador,
Luxembourg, El Salvador, Netherlands, Guatemala, Norway, Haiti,
Poland, Honduras, Portugal, Mexico, Spain, Nicaragua, Turkey,
Panama, United Kingdom, Paraguay, Peru
Asia/Pacific Bilaterals (4)
Trinidad & Tobago, Japan, Uruguay, Korea, Venezuela,
ANZUS (2) Agreements of Cooperation (2)
Australia, Liberia***, New Zealand**, Pakistan****
Freely Associated States (3)
Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Palau
* Cuba has been excluded from participation in the Inter
American System, including the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal
** The US has suspended its security obligation to New Zealand
under the ANZUS Treaty of 1951.
*** By 1959 executive agreement only.
**** By 1959 executive agreement pursuant to 1957 joint
DEFENSE RELATIONS WITH THE U.S.
OR VISITS, BUT
NOT A FORMAL DEFENSE COMMITMENT
Partners for Peace (26) North Africa/Middle East
Albania, Bahrain, Austria, Egypt, Armenia, Israel, Azerbaijan,
Jordan, Belarus, Kuwait, Bulgaria, Morocco, Estonia, Oman,
Finland, Qatar, Georgia, Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan,Tunisia,
Kyrgyzstan, United Arab Emirates, Latvia, Lithuania
Other, Africa (5)
Macedonia (FYROM), Moldova, Dijbouti, Romania, Eritrea, Russia,
Kenya, Slovakia, Senegal, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden,
Switzerland, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan
Organization of Eastern Caribbean States*, Jamaica
Brunei, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mongolia, Singapore,
* Comprises Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat,
St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines.
** No formal diplomatic relations. A foreign mlitary sales
relationship is provided by the Taiwan Relations Act, 1979.